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The Lovasz Local Lemma (LLL) is an *existential* argument; specifically,
the LLL says that (under appropriate conditions) the probability of avoiding all undesirable events
is positive, meaning that such a configuration must exist.

But how does one actually find a configuration that avoids all bad events, efficiently?

We introduce some notation, along with a concrete example from k-SAT

- \(\mathcal{V}\) is a set of variables e.g. the positive and negative literals \(X_1, ... X_n\) in k-SAT
- \(\mathcal{A} = \{ A_1, ..., A_m \}\) are the “bad” events that are functions of \(\mathcal{V}\) e.g. \(A_i\) is the event that the \(i\)th clause is unsatisfiable
- \(Vbl(A_i)\) is the (sub)set of \(\mathcal{V}\) involved in computing \(A_i\) e.g. \(Vbl(A_i)\) is the set of all variables involved in the \(i\)th clause
- \(\Gamma(A_i)\) is the set of all \(A_j\) such that \(Vbl(A_i) \cap Vbl(A_j) \neq \emptyset\) i.e. the interacting variables between \(A_i\) and \(A_j\) e.g. the set of all \(A_j\) such that they share variables with the \(i\)th clause

Given \(\mathcal{V}, \mathcal{A}\), choose a random assignment \(\sigma_v\) for each random variable \(v \in \mathcal{V}\). While there is some \(A_i \in \mathcal{A}\) such that \(A(\sigma) = 1\) (i.e. a bad event is happening), (1) Choose an arbitrary event \(A_i\) with \(A(\sigma) = 1\) and (2) update \(\sigma\) by reselecting/resampling \(\{\sigma_v : v \in Vbl(A_i) \}\) randomly.

**Theorem (Symmetric Algorithmic LLL by Moser-Tardos 2010)**: Let \(\mathcal{A}\) be a collection of bad events
determined by random variables in \(\mathcal{V}\). Suppose \(\forall A \in \mathcal{A}\):

- \(\lvert \Gamma(A) \lvert \leq d + 1\) i.e. \(A\) is independent of all but \(d\) other events
- \(\mathbb{P}[A] \leq 1 / e (d+1)\) i.e. the probability of bad event \(A\) is relatively small compared to the number of dependencies \(d\)

Then the given algorithm will find assignments such that no bad event in \(\mathcal{A}\) occurs, and the expected number of re-randomizations is \(P(\lvert\mathcal{A}\lvert / (d+1))\).

**Theorem (Asymmetric Algorithmic LLL)**: Let \(\mathcal{A}\) be a collection of bad events
determined by random variables in \(\mathcal{V}\). Suppose \(\exists x: \mathcal{A} \rightarrow (0, 1)\)
such that \(\forall A \in \mathcal{A}\):

Then algorithm will find assignment such that no event of \(\mathcal{A}\) occurs, and the expected number of rerandomizations is \(\leq \sum_{A \in \mathcal{A}} \frac{x(A)}{1 - x(A)}\).

We can prove the symmetric algorithmic LLL via the asymmetric algorithmic LLL. Set \(x(A) = 1/(d+1)\) for all \(A \in \mathcal{A}\). Suppose that \(\forall A \in \mathcal{A}, \lvert\Gamma(A)\lvert d + 1\) and \(\mathbb{P}[A] \leq 1/e(d+1)\). We can bound:

\[x(A) \prod_{B \in \Gamma(A) \setminus \{A \}} (1 - x(B)) \geq \frac{1}{d+1}(1 - \frac{1}{d+1})^d \geq \frac{1}{e(d+1)}\]